Academic Studies

the latest published research on feral cats & TNR


TNR as a method to stabilize or reduce feral cat populations


*  Levy, J.K., Gale, D.W. and Gale, L.A. (2003), Evaluation of the effect of a long-term trap-neuter-return and adoption program on a free-roaming cat population, Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 222: 42-46.
 
When the study began in 1991, there were 155 cats roaming the University of Central Florida's campus.  By 2002, when the study ended, the population had been reduced to 23, equalling an 85% decline.  Article for sale  -  click here.

 
*  Mendes-de-Almeida, F., et al. (2006), The impact of hysterectomy in an urban colony of domestic cats, International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine 4:134-141.

Female feral cats in a colony at the zoological garden of the city of Rio de Janeiro were sterilized, resulting in a stable cat population and a trend towards decreasing overall numbers.  Click here for this article (pdf file).


*  Reece, J.F., S.K. Chawla (2006), Control of rabies in Jaipur, India, by the sterilization and vaccination of neighbourhood dogs, The Veterinary Record 159: 379-383.

Over a period of ten years, the sterilization and vaccination of 65% of female street dogs and 6% of male street dogs in the target area resulted in a population decline of 28% as well as zero human rabies cases during the last two years of the study.  Click here for this article (pdf file).


*  Stoskopf, M., Nutter, F. (2004),  Analyzing approaches to feral cat management – one size does not fit all, Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 225: 1361-1364. 

After two years, six sterilized feral cat colonies decreased in size an average of 36% while three unsterilized control colonies increased in size an average of 47%.  Article for sale  -   click here.

 
Potential cost savings from TNR

*  Hughes, K.L., Slater, M.R. and Haller, L. (2002), The effects of implementing a feral cat spay/neuter program in a Florida county animal control service, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5: 285-298.

The study of a six-year TNR program in Orange County, Florida, showed significant savings when the cost per cat to the county of TNR was compared to the cost of trap and euthanize.  Article for sale  - click here.


Other

*  Levy, J.K., Crawford, P.C. (2004), Humane strategies for controlling feral cat populations, Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 225: 1354-1360.

Includes a comprehensive discussion of TNR vs. other methods.  Concludes 82% of kittens born in the United States originate from feral cats.  Also examines the removal of feral cats from a park in Chico, CA, which provided habitat for a rare ground-nesting bird.  The removal effort started in 1996 with approximately a dozen cats. The high visibility of the project led to increased abandonment and 633 more cats were removed over next seven years.   77% of the removed cats were adopted while the rest were maintained for life in sanctuary.  Article for sale  -   click here.

 
*  Lord, L. (2008) Attitudes toward and perceptions of free-roaming cats among individuals living in Ohio, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 232: 1159-1167.

Found a range of attitudes towards free-roaming cats across various types of communities.   Article for sale  -  click here.